The dynamics of multiple species and strains of malaria
This paper presents a deterministic SIS model for the transmission dynamics of malaria, a life-threatening disease transmitted by mosquitos. Four species of the parasite genus Plasmodium are known to cause human malaria. Some species of the parasite have evolved into strains that are resistant to treatment. Although proportions of Plasmodium species vary considerably between geographic regions, multiple species and strains do coexist within some communities. The mathematical model derived here includes all available species and strains for a given community. The model has a disease-free equilibrium, which is a global attractor when the reproduction number of each species or strain is less than one. The model possesses quasi-endemic equilibria; local asymptotic stability is established for two species, and numerical simulations suggest that the species or strain with the highest reproduction number exhibits competitive exclusion.
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